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Music Genre's pt3

2009-06-26 19:22:57 by est1913

Mashup (music)
A mashup, bootleg or blend (also mash up and mash-up) is a song or composition created by blending two or more songs, usually by overlaying the vocal track of one song seamlessly over the music track of another.

In full swing at the end of the 20th century, mashups have been described positively as "ultimate post-modern pop song[s]" or "'culture jamming in its purest form'"[3] They have also been described negatively as "the logical extension of the sampling fever of the '80s taken to its dumbest extreme". Due to the questionable legal status of mash ups and little chance of profits "there's a real punk rock attitude attached to the movement".

Cultural critic and legal commentator Siva Vaidhyanathan has commented that "The most interesting and entertaining phenomenon of the MP3 libraries on peer-to-peer systems is the availability of "mashes" - new compositions created by combining the rhythm tracks of one song and the vocal tracks of another." Noting that mashups have a rich history he observes that "It is merely the latest incarnation of a widely shared, deeply embedded cultural habit of cultural recombination across time and space."

Batá-rumba is a form of Rumba music popular mainly in Cuba. Only very recently developed as a sub-genre, it incorporates Caribbean Batá drum styles with more traditional African Rumba music. Its popularity is largely attributed to the group Afro-Cuba De Matanzas.

Batcave (club)
The Batcave was a nightclub in London, England at Meard Street, Soho. It is considered to be the birthplace of the English goth subculture. As one of the most famous meeting points for early goths, it lent its name to the term Batcaver, used to describe fans of the original gothic rock music. The term Batcave is also still used by Europeans to refer to Gothic music with a prominent Post-Punk sound and spooky atmospheres.

The club opened in July 1982. Originally specialising in New Wave and Glam rock, it later focused on Gothic rock. Ollie Wisdom, the lead singer in the house band, Specimen, ran the club with the assistance of production manager Hugh Jones. Famous regulars at the Batcave included legends such as Robert Smith, Siouxsie Sioux, Steve Severin, Foetus, Marc Almond and Nick Cave.

A diverse array of bands would play at the club, backed up by their resident DJs Hamish 'the paranoid' McDonald and Annie Hogan ( Marc Almond band member). The bands involved electronic leading act Alien Sex Fiend, led by Alice Cooper-influenced vocalist Nik Fiend. The host's band Specimen, who took ample influence from 1970s glam rock and Sex Gang Children, is a group that would go on to prove influential in the gothic rock, dark cabaret and deathrock movements. The club also showed black and white movies in the old theatre and occasionally featured unusual cabaret. Much of the image and fashion used by the subculture can be traced back to the bands who played at the Batcave.

In recent times, newer bands from the deathrock subgenre of Goth have begun to once more describe their music as "Batcave". It must be noted that these bands are generally from non-English speaking countries, though the original bands who played at the club have had their style dubbed as "Batcave". Because of this, in some sense the term is accurate.

Batucada is a substyle of samba and refers to an African influenced Brazilian percussive style, usually performed by an ensemble. It is considered by some to be the epitome of the percussive ensemble. Batucada is characterized by its repetitive style and fast pace.

Batuco is a locality of Chile, situated in the commune of Lampa, in the Santiago Metropolitan Region.

Beach music
Beach music, also known as Carolina beach music, is a regional genre which developed from various musical styles of the forties, fifties and sixties. These styles ranged from big band swing instrumentals to the more raucous sounds of blues/jump blues, jazz, doo-wop, boogie, rhythm and blues, reggae, rockabilly and old-time rock and roll. Beach music is closely associated with the style of swing dance known as the shag, or the Carolina shag, which is also the official state dance of both North Carolina and South Carolina. Recordings with a 4/4 "blues shuffle" rhythmic structure and moderate-to-fast tempo are the most popular music for the shag, and the vast majority of the music in this genre fits that description.
Beat music
Beat music, British beat, or Merseybeat (for bands from Liverpool beside the River Mersey), is a pop music genre that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1960s. Beat music is a fusion of rock and roll, doo wop, skiffle, R&B and soul. The beat movement provided most of the bands responsible for the British invasion of the American pop charts in the period after 1964, and provided the model for many important developments in pop and rock music.

Beat groups characteristically had simple guitar-dominated line-ups, with vocal harmonies and catchy tunes. The most common instrumentation of beat groups featured lead, rhythm and bass guitars plus drums, as popularized by The Beatles, The Searchers, Gerry & The Pacemakers and others. Beat groups - even those with a separate lead singer - often sang both verses and choruses in close harmony. The vocal harmony style often resembled doo wop, with nonsense syllables in the backing vocals. Unlike in doo-wop, falsetto and bass harmonies were rare.

Beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion which primarily involves the art of producing drum beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using one's mouth, lips, tongue, voice, and more. It may also involve singing, vocal imitation of turntablism, the simulation of horns, strings, and other musical instruments. Beatboxing is connected with hip hop culture although it is not limited to hip hop music.

Bebop or bop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempo and improvisation based on the combination of harmonic structure and melody. It was developed in the early and mid-1940s. It first surfaced in musicians' argot some time during the first two years of the Second World War.

Beiguan (%u5317%u7BA1; pinyin: B%u011Bigu%u01CEn; Taiwanese: Pakkóan) is a type of traditional music, melody and theatrical performance between the 17th and mid-20th centuries. It was widespread in Zhangzhou (the southern part of China's Fujian province) and Taiwan. By the early 21st century its popularity had declined precipitously.

Beiguan usually uses the following instruments: two suona (oboes), bangzi (woodblock), daluo (large bossed gong), xiaoluo (small gong), bangu (high-pitched drum), tonggu (small drum), xiaobo (small cymbals), and dabo (large cymbals). It may also use dagu (large drum), various huqin, and plucked instruments.

Bel canto
Bel canto (Bel-Canto) (Italian, "beautiful singing"), along with a number of similar constructions ('bellezze del canto', 'bell'arte del canto'), is an Italian opera term with several possible different meanings that is subject to a wide array of interpretations.

The earliest usage of the term bel canto emerged in late 17th-century Italy to refer to the Italian model of singing that was developing there. However, the phrase did not become widely used until the mid 18th century and the term did not take on a more specified meaning until the mid-19th century. In fact "neither musical nor general dictionaries saw fit to attempt definition until after 1900." Even so, the term bel canto remains ambiguous and is often used nostalgically in its application to a lost singing tradition.

Bend-skin (bend skin) is a kind of urban Cameroonian popular music. Kouchoum Mbada is the most well-known group associated with the genre. Several other artists have over the years contrubuted to the growth and popularity of bend skin. It is related to manganbeu, and is played using only drums and maracas (often made from soda cans), with a vocalist who both sings and raps. Bend-skin developed in 1993 in the New-Bell Banganté, amid a time of economic depression. Although gaining grounds in most urban settings in Cameroon, Bend-skin is closely associated with the Western Province of Cameroon (the Bamileke people), who have been responsible for developing and promoting this genre of music.

Benga music
Benga is a genre of Kenyan popular music. It evolved between the late 1940s and late 1960s, in Kenya's capital city of Nairobi. In the 1940s, the African Broadcasting Service in Nairobi aired a steady stream of soukous, South African kwela, Zairean finger-style guitar and various kinds of Cuban dance music. There were also popular folk songs of Kenya's Luo and Kikuyu peoples.

The Luo of Kenya have long played an eight-string lyre called nyatiti, and guitarists from the area sought to imitate the instrument's syncopated melodies. In benga, the electric bass guitar is played in a style reminiscent of the nyatiti. As late as the turn of the twentieth century, this bass in nyatiti supported the rhythm essential in transmitting knowledge about the society through music. Opondo Owenga of Gem Yala, the grandfather of Odhiambo Siangla, was known in employing music as a means of teaching history of the Luo.

In 1967, the first major benga band, Shirati Jazz, was formed by Daniel Owino Misiani. The group launched a string of hits that were East Africa's biggest songs throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Shirati Jazz's biggest rival is Victoria Jazz, formed in 1972 by Ochieng Nelly Mengo and Collela Mazee. Despite many personnel changes, Victoria Jazz remained popular throughout the 1970s, when the Voice of Kenya radio station pushed an onslaught of East African pop. Another famous benga bend Migori Super Stars was formed in the mid 70s and was led by Musa Olwete which later split to form another popular benga band Migori Super Stars C with musicians such as Joseph Ochola (Kasongo Polo Menyo), Onyango Jamba, Ochieng' Denge denge and others.

Modern benga artists include Kapere Jazz Band, the rootsy Ogwang Lelo Okoth, and the American/Kenyan group Extra Golden, and more recently Dola Kabarry.

A Bhajan is any type of Indian devotional song. It has no fixed form: it may be as simple as a mantra or kirtan or as sophisticated as the dhrupad or kriti with music based on classical ragas and talas.[1] It is normally lyrical, expressing love for the Divine. The name, a cognate of bhakti, meaning religious devotion, suggests its importance to the bhakti movement that spread from the south of India throughout the entire subcontinent in the Moghul era.

Anecdotes and episodes from scriptures, the teachings of saints and descriptions of gods have all been the subject of bhajans. The Dhrupad style, Sufi qawwali[2] and the kirtan or song in the Haridas tradition are related to bhajan. Nanak, Kabir, Meera, Narottama Dasa, Surdas and Tulsidas are notable composers. Traditions of bhajan such as Nirguni, Gorakhanathi, Vallabhapanthi, Ashtachhap, Madhura-bhakti and the traditional South Indian form Sampradya Bhajan each have their own repertoire and methods of singing.

Bha%u1E45g%u1E5B%u0101 Punjabi: %u0A2D%u0A70%u0A17%u0A5C%u0A3E,(Hindi: %u092D%u093E%u0902%u0917%u0921%u093C%u 093E; %u0628%u06BE%u0646%u06AF%u0691%u0627, pronounced [p%u0259%u0300%u014B%u0261%u027Da%u02D 0]) is a form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. Bhangra began as a folk dance conducted by Punjabi Sikhs to celebrate the coming of Spring, or Vaisakhi. This musical art further became synthesized after the partition of India, in which refugees from different parts of the Punjab shared their folk dances with individuals who resided in the regions they settled in. This hybrid dance became Bhangra. It is become popularized by the Indian Sikh Community. Today, bhangra survives in different forms and styles all over the globe - including pop music, film soundtracks, and even collegiate competitions.

Bhangragga is a slang term for the style of music incorporating elements of Bhangra and dancehall (or Ragga, short for the word Raggamuffin) created by British Asian producers alex and lennart on the debut album by Apache Indian No Reservations (1993). The sound is very percussion-heavy - a distinct holdover from Bhangra - with a propulsive beat clearly designed for dancing. The Dancehall influence can be felt through the use of pre-programmed music, similar to Dancehall "riddims". Lyrically, the style features a combination of Sub-Continental-accented (usually Indian) vocals delivered in the clipped style associated with Dancehall - and sometimes including the Patois of the latter style. This style is almost exclusively a British phenomenon, as the two cultures involved in its genesis mix reasonably freely there. The most successful exponent, however, is Apache Indian, who had a world-wide hit with "Boom Shack-A-Lak", which was included on the soundtrack to the film Dumb and Dumber, among others.

The style is also known as Bhangramuffin and may also be known as Bhangra-wine.

Big band
A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s. Big bands evolved with the times and continue to today. A big band typically consists of approximately 12 to 25 musicians and contains saxophones, trumpets, trombones, singers, and a rhythm section. The terms jazz band, jazz ensemble, stage band, jazz orchestra, society band and dance band may be used to describe a specific type of big band.

In contrast to smaller jazz combos, in which most of the music is improvised, or created spontaneously, music played by big bands is highly "arranged", or prepared in advance and notated on sheet music. The music is traditionally called 'charts'. Improvised solos may be played only when called for by the arranger.

Big beat
Big beat is a term employed since the mid 1990s by the British music press to describe much of the music by artists such as The Chemical Brothers, Fatboy Slim, The Crystal Method, Propellerheads and The Prodigy, typically driven by heavy breakbeats and synthesizer-generated loops and patterns in common with established forms of electronic dance music such as Techno and Acid House.

Big Beat tends to feature distorted, compressed breakbeats at moderate tempos (usually between 90 to 140 beats per minute), acid house style synthesizer lines and heavy loops from 60s and 70s Funk, Jazz, rock and pop songs. They are often punctuated with punk-style vocals and driven by intense, distorted basslines with conventional pop and techno song structures. Big beat tracks have a sound that include: crescendos, builds, drops, dramatic sound effects such as explosions or sirens and extended drum rolls. As with several other dance genres at the time the use of effects such as cut-off, phasing and flanging was commonplace.

Big Beat is also characterized by a strong psychedelic influence comparable to a wide range of artists from Serge Gainsbourg and Jean-Jacques Perrey to The Beatles and Led Zeppelin to Funkadelic and the Acid House movement of the late 1980s. Celebrated instigators of the genre such as Fatboy Slim tend to feature heavily compressed loud breakbeats in their tracks which are used to define the music as much as any melodic hooks and sampled sounds. Based on the primary use of loud, heavy breakbeats and basslines, Big Beat shares attributes with Jungle and Drum & Bass but it has a significantly slower tempo.

Biguine is a style of music that originated in Martinique in the 19th century.

By combining the traditional bélé music with the polka, the black musicians of Martinique created the biguine, which comprises three distinct styles, the biguine de salon, the biguine de bal and the biguines de rue. Lacking recognition at home, several biguine artists moved to mainland France, where they achieved greater popularity in Paris, especially in the wake of the colonial exhibition in 1931. The popularity of the biguine declined in the 1970s, when it began to be replaced by more commercial music.

The biguine is similar to New Orleans jazz music, and may have influenced its development.

Black metal
Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It often employs fast tempos, shrieked vocals, highly distorted guitars played with tremolo picking, double-kick drumming, and unconventional song structure.

During the 1980s, certain thrash metal bands established a prototype for black metal. This so-called First Wave included bands such as Venom, Bathory, Hellhammer and Celtic Frost.[1] A Second Wave emerged in the early 1990s, which consisted primarily of Norwegian bands such as Mayhem, Burzum, Darkthrone, Immortal and Emperor. This scene developed the black metal style into a distinct genre.

Black metal has been met with considerable hostility from mainstream culture, mainly due to the misanthropic and anti-Christian ideology of many artists. Additionally, some musicians have been associated with church burnings, murder or National Socialism. For these reasons and others, black metal is often viewed as an underground form of music.

Bluegrass music
Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and is a sub-genre of country music. It has its own roots in Irish, Scottish, Welsh and English traditional music. Bluegrass was inspired by the music of immigrants from the United Kingdom and Ireland (particularly the Scots-Irish immigrants in Appalachia), as well as jazz and blues. In bluegrass, as in jazz, each instrument takes its turn playing the melody and improvising around it, while the others perform accompaniment. This is in contrast to old-time music, in which all instruments play the melody together or one instrument carries the lead throughout while the others provide accompaniment. Traditional bluegrass is typically based around acoustic stringed instruments, such as mandolin, acoustic guitar, banjo, fiddle, and upright bass, with or without vocals.

Blue-eyed soul
Blue-eyed soul (also known as white soul) is rhythm and blues or soul music performed by white artists. The term was first used in the mid-1960s to describe white artists who performed soul and R&B that was similar to the raw, expressive music of the Motown and Stax record labels.

The term continued to be used in the 1970s and 1980s, particularly by the British music press, to describe a new generation of white singers who adopted elements of classic soul music. To a lesser extent, the term has been applied to singers in other music genres that are influenced by soul music, such as urban music and hip-hop soul.

Blues is a music genre based on the use of the blues chord progressions and the blue notes. Though several blues forms exist, the twelve-bar blues chord progressions are the most frequently encountered. Blue notes are sung or played at a slightly lower pitch than that of the major scale for expressive purposes. Blues emerged at the end of the 19th century as an accessible form of self-expression in African-American communities of the United States from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads. The use of blue notes and the prominence of call-and-response patterns in the music and lyrics are indicative of African influences. The blues influenced later American and Western popular music, as the blues form became a basic pattern of jazz, rhythm and blues, bluegrass and rock and roll. In the 1960s and 1970s, blues evolved into a hybrid form called blues rock. In the 1990s, punk blues appeared as an outgrowth of the blues rock and punk movements.

The term "the blues" refers to the "the blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness; an early use of the term in this sense is found in George Colman's one-act farce Blue Devils (1798). Though the use of the phrase in African American music may be older, it has been attested to since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. In lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood.

Blues ballad
The blues ballad uses the blues scale and blues style chord progressions with a bridge using a different bluesy chord progression in the conventional 32-bar popular song from Tin Pan Alley.

Among the best known blues ballads are Percy Mayfield's love song in the form of a prayer, "Please Send Me Someone to Love" and Buddy Johnson's "Since I Fell for You", most successfully recorded by Lenny Welch. Lonnie Johnson's "Tomorrow Night" is a pop standard. B.B. King has recorded several blues ballads, "You Know I Love You", his second hit, and "Sneakin' Around". Bobby Blue Bland recorded as many blues ballads as he did straight blues. Clarence Carter's "Slip Away" is another notable example.

Blues ballads are also popular in country music. Hank Williams's "Your Cheating Heart" and Freddy Fender's two classics, "Wasted Days and Wasted Nights" and "Before the Next Teardrop Falls", for example.

The blues ballad differs from conventional blues in its structure. Blues ballads have the Thirty-two-bar form of verse-verse-bridge-verse, while blues songs have the 12-bar A-A-B form or its 8-bar A-B variant. Both blues and blues ballads rely on the mainstay three chords and the blues scale. One subtle variation is found in some 8-bar blues, such as "Walkin' by Myself",, where one eight-bar blues melody forms the "A" part and another the "B" bridge.

Conversely, the blues ballad differs from bluesy pop songs like Harold Arlen's "Blues in the Night" by simpler harmonies and more direct language. That said, in the hands of a skillful and emotional performer like Dakota Staton, Dinah Washington, or Etta James, songs like "Mean to Me" or Cole Porter's "Love for Sale" can be hard to distinguish from formal blues ballads.

Blues-rock is a hybrid musical genre combining bluesy improvisations over the 12-bar blues and extended boogie jams with rock and roll styles. The core of the blues rock sound is created by the electric guitar, bass guitar and drum kit, with the electric guitar usually amplified through a tube guitar amplifier, giving it an overdriven character.

The style began to develop in the mid-1960s in England and the United States, as what Piero Scaruffi called, a "genre of rhythm'n'blues played by white European musicians". UK Bands such as The Who, The Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin, The Animals, Cream and The Rolling Stones experimented with music from the older American bluesmen like Howlin' Wolf, Robert Johnson, Jimmy Reed and Muddy Waters. While the early blues-rock bands "attempted to play long, involved improvisations which were commonplace on jazz records", by the 1970s, blues rock got heavier and more riff-based. By the "early '70s, the lines between blues-rock and hard rock were barely visible", as bands began recording rock-style albums. In the 1980s and 1990s, blues-rock acts returned to their bluesy roots, and some of these, such as the "Fabulous Thunderbirds and Stevie Ray Vaughan, flirted with rock stardom."

Biomusic is a form of experimental music which deals with sounds created or performed by living things. The definition is also sometimes extended to included sounds made by humans in a directly biological way. For instance, music that is created by the brain waves of the composer can also be called biomusic as can music created by the human body without the use of tools or instruments that are not part of the body (singing or vocalizing is usually excluded from this definition).

Biomusic can be divided into two basic categories: music that is created solely by the animal (or in some cases plant), and music which is based upon animal noises but which is arranged by a human composer. Some forms of music use recorded sounds of nature as part of the music, for example New Age music uses the nature sounds as backgrounds for various musical soundscapes, and ambient music sometimes uses nature sounds modified with reverbs and delay units to make spacey versions of the nature sounds as part of the ambience.

Bitpop is a type of electronic music, where at least part of the music is made using old 8-bit computers, game consoles and little toy instruments. Popular choices are the Commodore 64, Game Boy, Atari 2600 and Nintendo Entertainment System.

Due to its origins, bitpop is also referred to as 8-bit. The name has also been considered as a pun on britpop and the word bit.

Major publishers of bitpop are 8bitpeoples and Relax Beat & Bleepstreet Records. Examples of bands in the genre are Tobiah, Welle:Erdball, Printed Circuit, Anamanaguchi[1], Chiptots [2] Covox, YMCK, Teamtendo, Slagsmålsklubben, Receptors, Neotericz, 1986, FirestARTer, The Hardliner, capitalSTEPS (now called Square Wail), David Sugar, 8 Bit Weapon, 8 Bit Betty, Firebrand Boy, she, Death By Television, Mesu Kasumai, Turboknapp, Coleco Music, c64 Messiah, Thermostatic, DJ Lo Rez, ComputeHer, MelBot, Machinae Supremacy, Twilight Electric, Electric Dragon, Monster & Maskiner, Mr. Pacman, Pluxus, Shael Riley, Pontonius, Mikron 64, Puss, Nintendude, Yuppster, Crystal Castles, Bondage Fairies, You Love Her Coz She's Dead, 8 Bit Mayhem, Nullsleep, Sabretooth, HEARTSREVOLUTION, Henry Homesweet

Some related genres are chiptune, Gamewave, Picopop, and electropop.

Bocet is a form of Romanian folk music.

Bocet is a lament in free rhythm. The bocet is sung by one or more people with their eyes in tears or just expressing a deep grief. Encountered throughout Romania, bocet is a part of the traditional mourning observances.

Boi (music)
Boi is a style of Central Amazonian folk music now moving into the mainstream in Brazil.

Bolero is a name given to certain slow, romantic latin music and its associated dance and song. There are Spanish and Cuban forms, which are both significant, and which have separate origins. The term is also used for some art music. In all its forms, the bolero has been popular for over a century, and still is today.

Bomba is one of the most famous musical styles of Puerto Rico. Although there is some controversy surrounding its origin, most agree that it is a largely African music. The rhythm and beat are played by a set of hand drums and a maraca. Dance is an integral part of the music: the dancers move their bodies to every beat of the drum, making bomba a very wild and rich dance. Bomba is described to be a challenge between the drummer and the dancer. The dancer produces a series of gestures to which the primo drummer provides a synchronized beat. Thus, it is the drummer who attempts to follow the dancer and not the other way around. The dancer must be in great physical shape and the challenge usually continues until either the dancer or drummer discontinues. The main instruments used in bomba style music are any number of low pitched hand drums used to create a base rhythm, and a higher pitch drum which accentuates the beat with improvised patterns. Other instruments used are the palitos or cuas, which are sticks that are struck against any, usually wooden, surface. A single large maraca usually completes the sound of bomba, though a güiro has commonly been used in orchestral arrangements. Both of these last two instruments have origins in the Taino culture of the Caribbean Basin.

The basic music style was brought to Puerto Rico during the colonial slave trade. It originates in [Kongo] and Angola, Central Africa, although the majority of slaves can be traced back to many different areas of West and Central Africa. The dance was mostly practiced at the northern, southern and western coasts of the island where the majority of Africa's descendants lived. It is said by most bomba practitioners around the island that the town of Mayagüez is considered the birth place of bomba in Puerto Rico. The men use a series of hip and hand movements. The women use similar movements, however the movements are often augmented by the use of their skirts. In bomba shows, the typical apparel worn by the dancers is what slaves may have used in social gatherings. Men wear a white outfit and Panama hat and women wear big plantation skirts and a head scarf or bundaloo.

The traditional drums used in bomba are called barriles, since they have long been built from the wood of barrels. The high pitch drum is called "subidor" or "primo", and the low pitch drums are called "buleador" and "segundo". There are several styles of bomba, and the popularity of these styles varies by region. The four most common rhythms are called "sica", "yuba", "cuembé", and "holandes", though there are more than 25.

So far, Rafael Cortijo has been the only artist successful in taking bomba to the mainstream with his Combo in the 1950s and 1960's. Celia Cruz recorded bomba occasionally, her most successful recording being a bomba version of Mon Rivera's plena "A Papá Cuando Venga". Ricky Martin mixes a bit of authentic bomba rhythm with other Latino influences in his aptly-named song La Bomba. The song Mi Tierra by Gloria Estefan starts with a bomba rhythm as well.

Bongo drum
Bongo drums or bongos are a Latin-American percussion instrument consisting of a pair of single-headed, open-ended drums attached to each other. The drums are of different size: the larger drum is called in Spanish the hembra (female) and the smaller the macho (male). It is most often played by hand and is especially associated in Cuban music with a steady patter or ostinato of eighth-notes known as the martillo or "hammer".

Boogie woogie is a style of piano-based blues that became very popular in the late 1930s and early 1940s, but originated much earlier, and was extended from piano, to three pianos at once, guitar, big band, and country and western music, and even gospel. Whilst the blues traditionally depicts a variety of emotions, boogie-woogie is mainly associated with dancing. The lyrics of one of the very earliest, "Pinetop's Boogie Woogie", consist entirely of instructions to dancers:

Now, when I tell you to hold it, I don't want you to move a thing.
And when I tell you to get it, I want you to Boogie Woogie!

It is characterized by a regular bass figure, an ostinato and the most familiar example of shifts of level, in the left hand which elaborates on each chord, and trills and decorations from the right hand.

It is not strictly a solo piano style, but is also used to accompany singers and as a solo part in bands and small combos. It is sometimes called "eight to the bar", as much of it is written in common time (4/4) time using eighth notes (quavers) (see time signature). The chord progressions are typically based on I - IV - V - I (with many formal variations of it, such as I/i - IV/iv - v/I, as well as chords that lead into these ones.

For the most part, boogie-woogie tunes are twelve-bar blues, although the style has been applied to popular songs like "Swanee River" and hymns like "(Just a) Closer Walk with Thee."

Boogaloo or Bugalú (shing-a-ling) is a genre of Latin music and dance that was popular in the United States in the 1960s. Boogaloo originated in New York City among teenage Cubans, Puerto Ricans and other groups. The style was a fusion of popular African American R&B and soul with mambo and son montuno. It included the use of English lyrics as well as Spanish. Boogaloo entered the mainstream through the American Bandstand television program.

Bossa nova
Bossa nova (Br-BossaNova.ogg pronunciation (help·info)) is a style of Brazilian music popularized by Antônio Carlos Jobim, Vinicius de Moraes and João Gilberto. Bossa nova (which is Portuguese for "new trend") acquired a large following, initially by young musicians and college students. Although the bossa nova movement only lasted six years (1958-63), it contributed a number of songs to the standard jazz repertoire.

....continued on pt4


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